The rapid review uncovered very little literature detailing general crisis management models in Africa. It found almost no literature on the experience of using such crisis management models in relation to crises such as public disorder, political unrest, and epidemics. However, some independent evaluations of crisis management models used to respond to food security crises have been carried out. Most of the available literature was descriptive grey literature published by national governments or international agencies supporting their efforts. The literature available does not engage much with how these models will serve the needs of the most vulnerable.
Examples of national crisis management models include Nigeria, Uganda and Mauritania. These countries experience a range of natural and human-induced crises and have developed disaster management policies and agencies or centres to coordinate responses. Their national crisis management models are designed to respond to crises generally, rather than specific types of crises. Their crisis management models include activities and responsibilities relating to: i) crisis risk assessment; ii) crisis risk reduction; iii) crisis preparedness, prevention and mitigation; iv) crisis response; and v) crisis recovery. All these are dealt with at various levels of government, including local government. The central coordinating body generally sits in the office of the president or is under their direct control.
Evaluations have assessed food security crisis management in Kenya, Ethiopia and Niger. Kenyan crisis management has been criticised for having been fragmented, and thus ineffective, due to issues with governance. The Ethiopian and Nigerian famine early warning systems have been praised for their effectiveness, which has helped to manage the impact of food security crises. However, the systems are at risk of political interference. This can delay response to crises.