This GSDRC website is provided as a public service and is hosted by the Institute of Development Studies (IDS). It is subject to the following terms and conditions. Your use of the site is subject to these terms – if you do not agree to them, please leave the site.
Disclaimer of liability
In the preparation of the GSDRC website, every effort has been made to offer the most current, correct, and clearly expressed information possible. Nevertheless, inadvertent errors may occur. In particular, but without limiting anything here, GSDRC disclaims any responsibility for typographical errors and accuracy of the information that may be contained on GSDRC web pages. GSDRC also reserves the right to make changes at any time without notice.
The information and data included on GSDRC web pages has been compiled from a variety of sources. Unless expressly stated otherwise, opinions given on this website are those of the individuals making them, and not those of GSDRC or its funders: GSDRC is not responsible for such opinions or any claims resulting from them. Further, GSDRC makes no warranties or representations whatsoever regarding the quality, content, completeness, or adequacy of such information and data. In any situation where printed publications differ from the text contained in this system, the printed documents take precedence.
Some parts of the GSDRC website are interactive, and we encourage contributions by users, which may or may not be subject to editorial control prior to being posted on the website. GSDRC accepts no responsibility or liability for any material communicated by third parties in this way. GSDRC reserves the right at its sole discretion to remove, review, edit or delete any content at our own discretion.
You must not use any part of the website for any purpose which is illegal, immoral, offensive to others or in breach of others’ rights, or submit any content of that nature. This includes, but is not limited to any content or purpose which is discriminatory or harassing on the grounds of race, gender, religion, age or any other personal attribute, foul language, inciting hatred, sexually explicit, abusive, defamatory, in breach of copyright or other rights and such other activity as GSDRC may from time to time determine is unacceptable. GSDRC may remove or block access to any content or communication for any purpose. If you feel that your rights are infringed by anything on this site, please contact the GSDRC Team (details below) giving a full description of the offending items and reasons. GSDRC will investigate and, if it agrees, remove or block such content.
Disclaimer of reliability
While every effort is made to ensure that this website operates reliably, GSDRC make no representations or warranties regarding the condition or functionality of this website, its suitability for use, or that the service it provides will be uninterrupted or error-free.
Disclaimer of damages
By using this website, you assume all risks associated with its use, including any risk to your computer, software or data being damaged by any virus, software, or any other file which might be transmitted or activated via this website. GSDRC shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages, including, without limitation, lost revenues or lost profits, resulting from the use or misuse of this website or the information contained in this website.
Disclaimer of endorsement
Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favouring by GSDRC. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of GSDRC, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes.
Links to other websites
Links from the GSDRC website may take you to other websites that are not controlled by GSDRC. While such links are provided in good faith, GSDRC does not approve or endorse the websites to which it has established links in any way. Links are provided for your convenience only and GSDRC is not responsible for the content or privacy practices of any other website linked to or from the GSDRC website. Use of any such links will not render GSDRC liable to you or any other person for loss or liability of any kind.
We have tried to ensure that links to off-site materials are clearly indicated. If we have linked to your material and not clearly indicated that the content is non-GSDRC, please let us know so that we can resolve the matter by making the link clearer, or removing the link.
GSDRC outputs supported by DFID are © DFID Crown Copyright, licensed under the Open Government Licence; outputs supported by the Australian Government are © Australian Government; and outputs supported by the European Commission are © European Union.
Some GSDRC publications are © University of Birmingham. These can be reproduced for non-commercial purposes. Proper attribution is requested, stating the original source of the material. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for teaching or not-for-profit use is hereby granted without fee and without a formal request provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that full attribution appears on the first page. Copyright for web content and publications not owned by the University of Birmingham must be honoured and permission pursued with the copyright holder. Copying in any other circumstances, including but not limited to any commercial use, re-use in commercial publications, or for translation or adaptation, is not permitted without prior written permission from University of Birmingham, for which a fee may be payable.
To request permission to reprint or republish material from this site, or if you are unclear who is the copyright holder, please contact:
If you have any questions about these Terms and Conditions or the practices of this website, please contact us at:
Governance and Social Development Resource Centre
International Development Department
College of Social Sciences
University of Birmingham
Birmingham B15 2TT, UK