There is a paucity of evidence that examines the overall impacts of security and justice programming on gender-related results in the two areas of this query. The literature available tends to be donor funded evaluations and policy papers, it tends to be fragmented, and it tends to examine programmes on a case-by-case basis. Security and justice programing is highly context specific and there are few proven approaches or models (Woodrow, 2013). In light of this, this query focusses on micro-level evidence that illustrates how specific interventions have led to specific gender-related results. While both fragile and non-fragile developing countries are examined, security and justice programming tends to occur more in fragile countries.
Strategies for integrating a gender perspective into security and justice interventions include gender mainstreaming, in which the impact of all policies and programmes on women, men, girls and boys are considered at every stage of the programming cycle (Valasek, 2008); gender balancing, or ensuring equal representation of men and women in institutions and oversight bodies (Valasek, 2008); and gender-specific interventions such as training and capacity building, creating gender units within the police, and awareness raising and sensitisation of women’s rights with security and justice institutions.
- When addressing unequal inheritance, property and economic rights, typical interventions that have led to gender-related results include: changing laws and constitutions, working with customary justice systems, adopting international conventions, legal empowerment, sensitisation, awareness raising and education programmes, litigation, and institutional reforms and capacity development.
- When addressing women’s empowerment and representation in service delivery institutions, typical interventions that have led to gender-related results include: supporting paralegal services, sensitisation, awareness raising and education programmes, providing legal aid, all-women justice and security services, gender sensitive disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration, gender balancing, and supporting women’s and civil society groups.
- Cross-cutting lessons include: transforming social norms and behaviours; ensuring policies are translated into programming; and strengthening evidence based reforms.