Research for this report identified five GRM examples, though with varying levels of evaluation and assessment documentation. Many of these GRMs would not strictly be described as models but rather programmes, or sets of activities within programmes, that provide redressal of grievances.
There is not a definitive list of essential components for GRMs. Consequently this helpdesk report identifies a number of factors which the literature suggests have been important in effective GRMs:
- Communication campaigns: These campaigns use different forms of media, such as television, radio and print, to raise awareness about grievance mechanisms. NGOs and community networks have helped further publicise information by word-of-mouth.
- Management information systems: These, mainly computer-based, systems often have a primary role in dealing with standard work caseload (e.g. in registering cash transfer beneficiary details) but can be used to handle and monitor grievances. Their benefit is in bringing together relevant information in one place for officials to respond to grievances.
- Standard operating procedures or manuals: Certain practices are established, reviewed and disseminated, often through operating manuals. These can provide a clear overview to staff of programme cycles so as to identify points in which grievances can be addressed, as well as how to address them.
- Normalisation and incentivisation of grievance redressal: Treating grievances as a normal and valuable part of the workload, for example through performance benchmarks or training, can improve staff performance in redressing grievances.
- Mobile telephones: The use of mobile phones, and in particular SMS texts, seem to be a particularly valuable medium for dealing with grievances. Phone-based mechanisms can involve call centres or automated voice systems.
- Building on existing mechanisms: There can already be established formal systems (e.g. within ministries or departments, information centres, or judicial systems) and informal systems (e.g. councils of village elders, or chiefs), on which to build grievance redressal systems. These systems can be especially useful in dealing with ethnic and linguistic diversity, or hard to reach groups.