Identifying the impact of violence arising from radicalisation processes and extremism upon poverty and development outcomes is difficult due to the lack of literature which deals with the subject matter specifically. The discussion concerning radicalisation and extremist violence tends to focus on the following areas: 1) Islamic extremism and religious fundamentalism; 2) specific terrorist incidents; 3) the role of poverty as a driving force in radical or extremist violence. The literature which discusses the impact of terrorism and Islamic extremist violence upon poverty and development is presented in this report where relevant. However, this report adopts a broader understanding of radicalisation and extremist violence: ‘political violence’ is a term widely found in the literature and is the concept adopted here in order to offer a more comprehensive assessment of the literature available. It should be noted that the more general literature on the impact of conflict also offers relevant insights, thereby highlighting the importance of not viewing the impact of ‘radical’ or ‘extremist’ violence in isolation of the consequences of violence in general.