Much of the literature emphasizes that radicalisation cannot be attributed to any one factor, but is rather the outcome of a multiplicity of factors.
Individual and community influences (micro level) include:
- Identity crisis: second and third generation immigrant and diaspora communities may experience ‘cultural marginalisation’ in terms of alienation and lack of belonging to either home or host society.
- Community factors: the nature of community-level groups and networks can influence identity formation and contribute to vulnerability for radicalisation.
- Discrimination (real or perceived): discrimination can be a source of frustration that can contribute to identity crises. Some victims of perceived discrimination may react with political violence.
Host country influences (macro level) include:
- Failed integration and marginalisation: the establishment of homogenous, parallel societies can make diaspora communities vulnerable to radicalisation.
- History of colonisation: a history of cultural and political domination (or lack thereof) influence the relationship between the host society and diaspora groups, and the political views held by diasporas.
- Status of religion: a firm belief in secularization in host societies can contribute to a sense of alienation among religious diaspora groups.
Home country influences (macro level) include:
- Events in the homeland: independence and the perpetration of grave violations of human rights in the homeland can radicalise diaspora politics.
- Home country linkages: engagement by state and non-state organisations in the home country can play a role in the position of diaspora groups
- Composition of migrants: migrants that experienced social exclusion in their home country may be more susceptible to radicalisation.
Dynamics/enabling environment (meso level) include:
- Social media: social media, particularly YouTube can play an important role in the dissemination of radical messages and radicalisation of vulnerable individuals.
- International geopolitics: the negative effects of global events have the potential to attract young people to extremist organisations.
- Vilification: actions of a radical minority can create the conditions for widespread negative sentiment and discriminatory responses toward the moderate majority.
- Trauma: the psychological scars that many conflict-generated diaspora have may render them vulnerable to radicalisation.
- Resources: radical groups can be strengthened by effective money collection systems targeting the diaspora.
Broad measures aimed at deradicalisation include: promoting integration; community outreach; and developing counter-narratives.