This rapid literature review brings together lessons from interventions that address the link between livelihood pressures and cross-border conflict systems. There is limited literature on this exact question, thus, this paper draws together findings from: the general livelihoods literature; literature on livelihoods programming in fragile and conflict affected states (FCAS) related to conflict systems; the state- and peacebuilding literatures; literature on borderlands, conflict and development; and literature on demobilisation, disarmament, and reintegration (DDR) interventions, including some livelihoods-related activities. Some livelihood challenges and interventions have clear potential cross-border elements and links to conflict systems (e.g. refugee responses, cross-border pastoralists, violence against women during cross-border trading, transnational serious and organised crime, etc.). Where possible, this literature review focuses on lessons regarding these types of interventions, and specifically on the cross-border elements.
This paper is organised as follows: Section 1 provides a summary of the findings and explains the method taken; Section 2 provides definitions for the paper, and traces the varied connections we can make between livelihoods and conflict systems; Section 3 explains how livelihood interventions have evolved to the current day; Section 4 explains the main types of livelihood interventions; Section 5 provides illustrative lessons from a number of intervention types, including interventions related to: displacement; cross-border pastoralists; informal cross-border trade (ICBT); microfinance; alternative livelihoods, migration; serious and organised crime; and vocational training and skills; and Section 6 provides cross-cutting lessons.