Private sector development (PSD) encompasses a wide range of economic development programming in FCAS, including business climate reform and market development. The private sector is important for creating jobs, improving the population’s purchasing power, stimulating the local economy, and building trust between potential business partners. It also tends to recover faster than government following conflict (de Vries and Specker 2009). The key priorities for private sector development in post-conflict environments are creating an enabling business environment that encourages sustained growth, and strengthening local enterprises to compete in the economy (USAID 2009; de Vries and Specker 2009).
According to Mac Sweeney (2008), PSD can have a significant impact in post-conflict situations if implemented in a way that is sensitive and addresses contextual social, economic and political characteristics. Although there is general agreement that PSD can contribute to peacebuilding, there is debate over its sequencing within the conflict recovery process de Vries and Specker 2009. While DFID and the IFC advocate starting PSD early, the UN places it later in a process of longer-term recovery efforts. However, UNDP (2008) recommends initiating reforms as early as possible, including; prioritising governance and security reforms; empowering local entrepreneurs; and promoting foreign investment. Curtis et al. (2010) note that PSD programming has sometimes significantly and dangerously underestimated the role of PSD in conflict. They argue that it should seek to maximise impact on peacebuilding beyond economic development, and also focus governance, building security, stability and trust, and developing infrastructure.
Mac Sweeney (2008) outlines the debate between the two PSD main schools of thought:
- The systemic approach encourages indirect support to the private sector through improving the investment climate in which it operates. Factors include the macro-economic environment, the rule of law, business regulations and the fiscal regime.
- The interventionist approach encourages direct intervention to generate real change in the way that markets function (Saperstein and Campbell 2008). Activities can include: promoting market linkages, value chains, business associations and community groups; providing access to employment, vocational training and microfinance; and targeted support.
Proponents of the systemic approach argue that development agencies should not be involved in ‘picking winners’, while interventionists argue that a lack of political will often means policy-level changes have little impact on the ground. Nonetheless, there is a high degree of overlap between these two approaches.
Business Climate Reform
Business climate reform aims to reduce the costs and risks – for example, inappropriate regulation, excessive taxation, and lack of fair competition – that restrict investment and the development of markets in order to increase economic growth, reduce poverty and improve socio-economic welfare. It addresses the policy, legal, institutional, regulatory and cultural framework within which individuals and firms operate (Channell 2010; DCED 2008). Much of the literature on the systemic approach to PSD refers to the investment climate; – factors such as regulations, laws, infrastructure and corruption levels (Walton 2010b) that influence incentives and opportunities to invest and create jobs (Rao 2010).
The literature often fails to disaggregate the ‘investment climate’ (Rao 2010). Yet, a generalised understanding of what constitutes a strong investment climate may be inaccurate; conditions favourable to one particular sector or firm may be unfavourable to another or affect investment elsewhere. Mills and Fan (2006) note that, in the post-conflict period, the telecoms sector tends to grow first, followed by energy and transport, then water and sanitation. Further, Moore and Schmitz (2008) argue that policies favourable to business are not necessarily, or proportionately, good for investment and growth.
While reforming the business climate may create opportunities for peacebuilding, it also poses significant challenges and risks in conflict environments. There is debate over which social, political and economic factors have prevented the development of a strong investment climate and therefore need to be addressed (Rao 2010). The traditional view is that enforceable property and contract rights, and business laws, regulations and institutions lay the foundations for economic opportunity and a business-enabling environment (Channell 2010). However, others question whether this approach is appropriate in poor countries with weak institutions. Substantial increases in investment may also take place through ‘hand-in-hand’ arrangements between investors and politicians (Moore and Schmitz 2008).
According to the SEEP Network (2007), market development is ‘a sub-field of enterprise and private sector development, in which development programs seek to help small enterprises participate in, and benefit more from, the existing and potential markets in which they do business’. As such it is an interventionist approach, aimed at identifying leverage points within market system, addressing problems in the way markets function, and the resulting power imbalances (Gerstle and Meissner 2010). They are considered to have the potential to quicken reconstruction efforts to reduce poverty, as well as to leverage the private sector to work with households to achieve sustainable livelihoods. As market links are especially likely to suffer during a conflict due to the erosion of trust between groups, improving these links is also considered to benefit peacebuilding and economic development (Mac Sweeney 2008). This may further support the transition from markets dominated by illegal activity, to legitimate market connections with the potential to formalise (ibid).
Mac Sweeney (2008) claims that market development has the advantage of immediacy and tangibility, with clearly targetable beneficiaries and rapid, highly visible, peace dividends. Further, it is more adaptable to the FCAS context as it does not rely on government institutions to function effectively. The objective of value chain programming, for example, is to enable poor individuals and households to move out of saturated low-return activities and into higher-return, growing markets by linking poor producers to private sector actors who have access to growing markets and an interest in forming partnerships (Parker 2008). There is a particular focus on adding value to products and processes used by various participants within the chain to support the entire group of actors to compete successfully in profitable markets (ibid). Donors can support market linkages by connecting economic actors with each other, or by circulating information about the markets to allow actors to adjust their activities to market trends (Mac Sweeney 2008).
What works and does not work in private sector development
The growth diagnostic appears to be best suited to conflict-affected environments. It can provide a more detailed analysis of the cause-and-effect relationships behind the constraints to growth, and can be easily combined with a political economy approach (Curtis et al. (2010)). It can also be used in a simplified way if data collection is not possible. Value chain analysis can also be a useful tool, as it can inform and reinforce conflict analysis and directly address possible causes of conflict. It is also helpful for guiding advisors on the prioritisation of particular sectors.
Datzberger and Denison (2013) find evidence of the impact of PSD programming to be very weak on a range of economic, stability and peacebuilding objectives, including equality of outcomes and opportunity, political participation, and state-society relations. They state that PSD programming is generally evaluated from an economics perspective, without attention to stabilisation and that, when stabilisation objectives do feature, causal inferences are weak.
Business Climate Reform
There is a substantial body of literature supporting the view that improvements in an investment climate lead to economic growth. In general, reform requires identifying and addressing the aspects of the business environment that harm commercial activity by reducing trade, compromising property rights, and undermining trust; and by creating and enhancing legitimacy through relationships of trust (Channell 2010). However, there is also widespread criticism of the cross-country studies used to demonstrate this link (Walton 2010b) and the methods used to measure an investment climate (Guglielmetti 2010; IEG 2008). There is less evidence of the relationship between the wider business environment and economic growth, and little documentation on the relationship between the business environment and peacebuilding and statebuilding objectives.
There is debate over whether or not the immediate post-conflict period is responsive to reform (Bray 2007). Channell (2010) gives an example of how corrupt and unjust courts may promote resentment, underpinning the roots of conflict, and argues that there are potential opportunities to improve judicial transparency during the period of rebuilding. He stresses that this may also be a good time to expand opportunities for women, as traditional power structures following a conflict may be more open to greater inclusion of women in policy and business (ibid). This idea supports investment climate reforms in the immediate post-conflict period Walton (2010a). However, disrupted enforcement systems can also constrain businesses and mitigate the effects of early reforms. Businesses may retreat to less efficient and more expensive arrangements, forgo new opportunities or spend valuable resources creating ‘work-arounds’ if they cannot rely on established systems (Channell 2010). According to Walton (2010b), early reforms are most likely to succeed where there is a degree of political stability and the risk of resumption of conflict is low.
There is consensus that ‘the fundamentals’– macroeconomic reform and transparency and anti-corruption measures – should be addressed early on (Bray 2007; Channell 2010; Mac Sweeney 2008). However, some practitioners question the feasibility of doing so in environments with a legacy of conflict. Mac Sweeney (2008) notes that PSD programmes often have to take place in the absence of sound financial institutions and macroeconomic structures The IMF (2011) further acknowledges the difficulty of implementing macroeconomic reforms in fragile, low-income, countries, noting that agendas tend to be overly optimistic.
Much of the literature advocates reforming the formal rules of the investment climate, such as enforceable rights laws and regulations. However, some suggest that this approach is not always realistic in FCAS. Growth in productive investments can take place in the absence of these rules, promoting a willingness to engage extra-legal and informal channels. Moore and Schmitz (2008) note the importance of understanding the circumstances in which informal arrangements raise productive investment in ways that strengthen the demand for formal rules. In Indonesia, relationship, rather than rule based cooperation was a key factor for policy reform, with informal dialogue between government leaders and local firms providing an effective mechanism for improving the local investment climate (Von Luebke et al. (2009)).
Attempts to reform property rights demonstrate the challenges of implementing formal rules. Land reform is considered a particularly intractable and deeply rooted issue across FCAS (Walton 2010b) and should be implemented with caution (Mills and Fan 2006; Channell 2010). Khan (2005) argues that efforts to formalise property rights and counter rent-seeking in FCAS might undermine the investment climate if the government lacks the capacity to enforce changes. Furthermore, Channell (2010) points to the risk of reigniting grievances and conflict by recognising property rights that are ‘legal’, but perceived as illegitimate.
There is wide support for basing interventions on detailed political economy analysis to help explain why some reforms are successful while others are not (DCED 2008; USAID 2010; Walton 2010a; 2010b; Moore and Schmitz 2008). Political economy analysis focuses on four key steps (Davis 2011):
- analysing the level of political commitment to reform at each level of government;
- identifying potential institutional champions in the public and private sectors that can drive and manage the reform process;
- understanding the institutional drivers, incentive structures, legal traditions, policy history and cultural factors that are likely to influence the reform effort;
- identifying potential ‘winners and losers’ from the reform to gauge how successful the process may be.
Despite support for political economy analysis in the reform process, Walton (2010b) notes that there is little sustained analysis in this area.
Similarly, while there is agreement that business environment reform needs to be conflict sensitive, there is little evidence of what this looks like. Lessons in conflict analysis cite the need to pay attention to the various social and economic relationships that initiated the conflict and how to manage them following post-conflict negotiations (Channell 2010; USAID 2010). They further stress the ‘do no harm’principle by being aware of the possible effects, both positive and negative, on conflict actors (Mills and Fan 2006; Walton 2010b). Channell (2010) warns of the abuse of regulatory authority reigniting conflict, and resulting in the conversion of business rights into privileges that can be denied in order to obtain bribes or exclude certain groups. However, monitoring and evaluation of reform programmes often fail to look at conflict sensitivity. For example, the IFC’s Development Outcome Tracking System (DOTS) which is used to track the development effectiveness of its programmes does not include conflict effects, or contributions toward peacebuilding or statebuilding as part of its benchmarking process (Leo et al. 2012).
Channell (2010) also stresses the need to establish the legitimacy of business environment reforms, recognising that they will be most effective when the funding priorities of donors are aligned with the needs of the private sector and the political will of the government. This requires engagement with the local private sector and the communities in which it operates (Bray 2007; Mills and Fan 2006; Walton 2010a). To legitimise this process all stakeholders need to be meaningfully represented and have the opportunity to participate (Channell 2010; DCED 2008; Walton 2010a).
Public-private dialogue (PPD) is a widely advocated method for legitimately engaging stakeholders (Channell 2010; Davis 2011; Mills and Fan 2006). The World Bank (2014) documents lessons from a survey of PPD practitioners in more than 30 countries. 63 per cent of the respondents believed that PPD contributed to peacebuilding, with the building of trust among stakeholder groups and the creation of a culture of dialogue and transparency as the most important activities.
Evidence shows that where business networks and associations are strong, they can mobilise business support and lobby for policy reforms that are relevant to conflict prevention and peacebuilding. For instance, they can advocate for the transparent use of revenues and clear rules and regulations for business conduct (International Alert 2006a; 2006b; Slim 2012). This is echoed by Mercy Corps (2011)’ Evaluation and Assessment of Poverty and Conflict Interventions (EAPC) which states that ‘deep’ economic interactions, such as participation in economic associations or business partnerships, can build relationships between adversarial groups and provide incentives for peace. Other literature supports the importance of businesses forming coalitions and working together to pursue both direct business interests and wider societal goals (Nelson 2000). Examples include a group of local trade associations sponsoring a public campaign to mobilise citizens to speak out on the importance of peace in Sri Lanka (World Bank 2011) and professional association members such as midwives, providing time and skills to promote relief, development and peacebuilding in Somalia (Hammond et al. 2011).
The work of International Alert (2006a; 2006b) highlights the importance of engaging the private sector in partner countries in policy dialogue, and promoting conflict-sensitive foreign direct investment and business-to-business links. At meso-level this should include support to sound intermediate private sector structures and business associations. Lessons taken from Nelson’s work (2000) relate to the need to support the (re-)establishment or strengthening of institutional structures and associations in conflict-sensitive or post-conflict societies and to build capacities and governance systems for the local private sector.
Obstacles to maximising the potential impact of business communities in conflict management are chiefly a lack of recognition that the private sector has a role (among business communities, NGOs, and the international community), coupled with a lack of understanding of what that role might be (Killick et al. 2005; Iff et al. 2010). Overcoming these obstacles requires:
- raising awareness, not only in the private sector, but among other local and international peacebuilding organisations.
- identifying the different types of roles the private sector can play, depending on the size and nature of the business community, as well as the type and stage of the conflict.
The 2011 World Development Report echoes this, emphasising the need to focus on developing local capacity – both within the private sector itself and within the government administration that oversees private sector development-related regulations and reforms, particularly in the period when conflict is already on the horizon.
Despite a wealth of literature on the investment climate in FCAS, Rao (2010) notes a shortage of empirical studies and evidence that are readily generalisable. This is partially attributed to the difficulty of quantifying the impact of reforms on the investment climate or wider business environment (MIGA 2004, Moore and Schmitz 2008). There is also criticism over the adequacy of the commonly used World Bank ‘Doing Business’ indicators for measuring changes in the investment climate. The World Bank (2014) further notes difficulties in collecting data and the challenge of proving attribution in complex fragile environments. This poses a significant challenge for the monitoring and evaluation of PPD initiatives.
The SEEP Network (2007) documents the experiences and innovations of 13 market development operating in crisis environments. It argues that, where interventions incorporate a sound understanding of the market and its context they have the potential to smooth the transition from relief to development, and also to improve the performance of relief programmes.
Gerstle and Meissner (2010) outline four sets of questions for market development practitioners to consider in fragile contexts:
- Are there any overlaps between main market actors and conflict actors?
- Does the market encourage links between groups separated by conflict, or reinforce divisions?
- Can specific groups affected by the conflict (such as ex-combatants) participate effectively in this market?
- How is the market affected by, and how does it affect, the conflict? Does it reinforce existing inequalities? Do trends in the market affect the dynamics of the conflict (positively or negatively)? How do changes in the conflict affect this market?
These questions help practitioners to be aware of how efforts to promote the economy interact with conflict dynamics. Lister and Paine’s 2004 study with the Afghan Research and Evaluation Unit warns against promoting ‘collapsed markets’ at the risk of reinforcing the interests of economic elites that control a wide range of trade, but which have no interest in long-term investments, strategic positioning or business partners.
Parker (2008) identifies three value chain projects in conflict-affected contexts which demonstrate significant economic returns in sales, employment, and private sector investment; as well as four examples that demonstrate how these type of projects can be used to reach particularly vulnerable populations, even during conflict. Key lessons drawn from the case studies include:
- investment in rebuilding inter-firm links and trust is time-consuming, but essential;
- attention needs to be paid to the business-enabling environment and constraints relating to public infrastructure;
- planning for the delivery of support services is crucial to the success of value chain programming;
- sustainability needs to be a focus of the project from the outset;
- private-sector participants within the value chain are often the most powerful champions of the programme;
Gündüz and Klein (2008) provide options for integrating conflict-sensitive approaches into value chain analysis and interventions in conflict situations. They provide guidance on conducting conflict analysis on each of the value chain components, as well as identifying interactions between value chains and conflict under three broad categories: 1) the impacts of wider conflict on a value chain and its components; 2) a value chain’s impact on wider conflict; and 3) conflicts present within a value chain, among different actors at different levels.
Making Markets Work for the Poor (M4P) is a framework for finding ways to increase the incomes of poor people while promoting the accessibility of other products and services they require (Gerstle and Meissner 2010). It is considered to incorporate elements of both the systemic and interventionist approaches to PSD (Mac Sweeney 2008). If grounded in comprehensive political economy and conflict analysis, M4P is particularly well suited to post-conflict environments because it involves a market diagnostic process to account for market dynamics and stakeholders, it is sufficiently flexible to deal with the dynamic and volatile nature of post-conflict environments, and it incorporates risk management in order to avoid exacerbating conflict (Ockenden 2011).
- Abdelnour, S., Badri, B., El Jack, A., Wheeler, D., McGrath, S., & Branzei, O. (2008). Examining enterprise capacity: A participatory social assessment in Darfur and Southern Sudan. York: University Centre for Refugee Studies See document online
- Abrahams, N. & Jewkes, R. (2005). Effects of South African men’s having witnessed abuse of their mothers during childhood on their levels of violence in adulthood. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10). See document online
- Adam, C., Collier, P., & Davies, V. (2008). Post-conflict monetary reconstruction. World Bank Economic Review, 22(1), 87-112. See document online
- Adam, J. (2008). Displacement, coping mechanisms and the emergence of new markets in Ambon (CRG Working paper 9). Ghent: Conflict Research Group See document online
- Addison, T., Le Billon, P., & Murshed, S. M. (2001). Finance in conflict and reconstruction (WIDER Discussion Paper No. 2001/44). Helsinki: UNU/WIDER. See document online
- Conflict Sensitivity Consortium. (2004). Conflict-sensitive approaches to development, humanitarian assistance and peacebuilding: Resource pack. London: Conflict Sensitivity Consortium. See document online
- Alinovi, L., Hemrich, G., & Russo, L. (2007). Addressing food insecurity in fragile states: Case studies from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia and Sudan (ESA Working Paper 07-21). Rome: Food and Agriculture OrganizationSee document online
- Anand, P. (2005). Getting infrastructure priorities right in post-conflict reconstruction (UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2005/42). Helsinki: UN-WIDER. See document online
- Annan, J., Blattman, C., & Horton, R. (2006). The state of youth and youth protection in Northern Uganda: Findings from the Survey for War Affected Youth. Kampala: UNICEF Uganda. See document online
- Ballentine, K., & Haufler, V. (2009). Enabling economies of peace: Public policy for conflict-sensitive business. New York: United Nations Global Compact. See document online
- Banfield, J., Gündüz, C. & Killick, N. (Eds.). (2006). Local business, local peace: The peacebuilding potential of the domestic private sector. London: International Alert. See document online
- Barbieri, K. & Reuveny, R. (2005). Economic globalization and civil war. The Journal of Politics, 67(4), 1228-1247. See document online
- Barma, N. H., Kaiser, K., Le, T. M. & Viñuela, L. (2012). Rents to riches? The political economy of natural resource-led development. Washington, DC: World Bank. See document online
- Bastick, M., Grimm, K. & Kunz, R. (2007). Sexual violence in armed conflict: Global overview and implications for the security sector. Geneva: Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. See document online
- Bayne, S. and T. Vaux (2013). ‘Integrated development and peacebuilding programming: Design, monitoring and evaluation’, DFID.
- Beall, J., & Schutte, S. (2006). Urban livelihoods in Afghanistan (Synthesis paper series). Kabul: AREU. See document online
- Beasley, K. W. (2006). Job creation in postconflict societies. USAID. See document online
- Bellows, J., & Miguel, E. (2009). War and local collective action in Sierra Leone. Journal of Public Economics, 93, 1144–57. See document online
- Berman, E., Felter, J. H., Shapiro, J. N., & Callen, M. (2011). Do working men rebel? Insurgency and unemployment in Afghanistan, Iraq and the Philippines. Journal of conflict Resolutions, 55(4), 496-528. See document online
- Blattman, C., & Miguel, E. (2010). Civil war. Journal of Economic Literature, 48(1), 3-57. See document online
- Blattman, C. & Annan, J. (2014). Can employment reduce lawlessness and rebellion? A field experiment with high-risk men in a fragile state (NBER Working Paper No. 21289). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. See document online
- Bray, J. (2007). The role of private-sector development in post-conflict recovery. UNDP. See document online
- Brown, O. (2013). Encouraging peace-building through better environmental and natural resource management (Energy, environment and resources briefing paper EER BP 2013/04). London: Chatham House See document online
- Brück, T., & Schindler, K. (2008). The impact of conflict on households: A conceptual framework with reference to widows (WIDER research paper 2008/83). Helsinki: UNU-WIDER. See document online
- Brückner, M., & Ciccone, A. (2010). International commodity prices, growth and the outbreak of civil war in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Economic Journal, 120(544), 519–534. See document online
- Buchanan-Smith, M., & Fadul, A. A. (2008). Adaptation and devastation: The impact of the conflict on trade and markets in Darfur. Medford, MA: Feinstein International Centre. See document online
- Byrne, B. (1996). Gender, conflict and development: Vol. 1. Overview (BRIDGE Report No. 34, Rev. ed.). Brighton: Institute of Development Studies. See document online
- Carnahan, M., Durch, W., & Gilmore, S. (2006). Economic impact of peacekeeping. New York: United Nations. See document online
- Castillejo, C. (2011). Building a state that works for women: Integrating gender into post-conflict state building (Working paper no. 107). Madrid: FRIDE. See document online
- Castillejo, C. (2014). Promoting inclusion in political settlements: a priority for international actors? Norweigan Peacekeeping Resource Centre.
- Cederman, L. E., Weidman, N. B., & Gleditsch, K.S. (2011). Horizontal inequalities and ethno-nationalist civil war: A global comparison. American Political Science Review, 105(3), 478-495. See document online
- Cerise, S. and F. Francavilla (2012). Tackling the root causes of gender inequalities in the post-2015 development agenda (The Heart of the Post-2015 Development Agenda and the Future We Want for All, Global Thematic Consultation). New York: United Nations. See document online
- Chamarbagwala, R., & Moran, H.E. (2011). The human capital consequence of civil war: Evidence from Guatemala. Journal of Development Economics, 94(1), 41-61. See document online
- Channell, W. (2010). Peacebuilding essentials for economic development practitioners practice note 2: Business environment reforms in conflict-affected contexts (Strengthening the economic dimensions of peacebuilding practice note series). International Alert. See document online
- Chauvet, L., & Collier, P. (2008). What are the preconditions for turnarounds in failing states? Conflict Management and Peace Science, 25(4), 332-348. See document online
- Christian, S., de Janvry, A., Egel, D., & Sadoulet, E. (2013). Quantitative evaluation of the Social Fund for Development labor intensive works program (LIWP). Sana’a: Yemen Social Fund for Development. See document online
- Ciccone, A. (2011). Economic shocks and civil conflict: A comment. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 3, 215-227 See document online
- Collier, P. (1999). On the economic consequences of civil war. Oxford Economic Papers, 51 (1), 168-183 See document online
- Collier, P. (2006). Post-conflict economic recovery. New York: International Peace Academy. See document online
- Collier, P. (2009). Post-conflict recovery: How should strategies be distinctive? Journal of African Economies, 18(supplement 1), i99-i131. See document online
- Collier, P., & Duponchel, M. (2010). The economic legacy of civil war: Firm level evidence from Sierra Leone (Working paper no. 2010/90). Helsinki: UNU/WIDER. See document online
- Collier, P., & Hoeffler, A. (2002). Aid, policy and peace: Reducing the risks of civil conflict. Defence and Peace Economics, 13(6), 435-50. See document online
- Collier, P., & Hoeffler, A. (2007). Civil war. In T. Sandler & K. Hartley (Eds.) Handbook of Defence Economics (Vol. 2, 711-39). Amsterdam: North-Holland. See document online
- Collier, P., Hoeffler, A., & Rohner, D. (2009). Beyond greed and grievance: Feasibility and civil war. Oxford Economic Papers, 61(1), 1-27. See document online
- Collier, P., Hoeffler, A., & Söderbom, M. (2004). On the duration of civil war. Journal of Peace Research, 41(3), 253-273. See document online
- Collier, P., Hoeffler, A., & Söderbom, M. (2008). Post-conflict risks. Journal of Peace Research, 45(4), 461-478. See document online
- Cooper, N. (2002). State collapse as business: the role of conflict trade and the emerging control agenda. Development and Change, 33(5), 935-955 See document online
- Corlazzoli, V. (2014). ICTs for monitoring and evaluation of peacebuilding programmes. London: DFID. See document online
- Corlazzoli, V., & White, J. (2013a). Back to basics: A compilation of best practices in design, monitoring & evaluation in fragile and conflict-affected environments. London: DFID. See document online
- Corlazzoli, V., & White, J. (2013b). Measuring the un-measurable: Solutions to measurement challenges in fragile and conflict-affected environments. London: DFID. See document online
- Cramer, C. (2002). Homo economicus goes to war: Methodological individualism, rational choice and the political economy of war. World Development, 30(11), 1845-1864. See document online
- Curtis, L., Davis, P., Gündüz, C., Ockenden, A., Pedrick, T., Vaux, T., & Van Der Zwan, J. (2010). Private sector development in conflict-affected environments: Key resources for practitioners. Cambridge: The Donor Committee for Enterprise Development. See document online
- Dalberg Global Development Advisors. (2010). The growing role of the development finance institutions in international development policy. Copenhagen: Dalberg Global Development Advisors. See document online
- Darby, S. (2010). ‘Natural resource governance New frontiers in transparency and accountability’. Open Society Foundation
- Datzberger, S., & Denison, M. (2013). Private sector development in fragile states (EPS PEAKS Helpdesk Request). London: EPS PEAKS. See document online
- David, A., Rodrigues Bastos, F., & Mills, M. (2011). Post-conflict recovery: Institutions, aid or luck? (Working paper no. 11/149). Washington, DC: IMF. See document online
- Davis, P. (2011). The political economy of business environment reform: An introduction for practitioners. Cambridge: The Donor Committee for Enterprise Development. See document online
- DCED. (2008).Supporting business environment reforms: Practical guidance for development agencies. Cambridge: The Donor Committee for Enterprise Development. See document online
- De Vries, H., & Specker, L. (2009). Early economic recovery in fragile states: Priority areas and operational challenges. The Hague: Clingendael Institute. See document online
- Delechat, C., Clark, W., Gupta, P., Kabedi-Mbuyi, P., Koulet-Vickot, M., Macario, C., … Yang., S. (2015). Harnessing resource wealth for inclusive growth in fragile states (Working paper no. 15/25). Washington, DC: IMF. See document online
- DeLoach, S. B.,& Lamanna, E. (2011). Measuring the impact of microfinance on child health outcomes in Indonesia. World Development, 39(10), 1808–19. See document online
- Department of State. (2010). Afghanistan and Pakistan regional stabilization strategy. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. See document online
- DFID. (2005). Why we need to work more effectively in fragile states. London: DFID. See document online
- DFID. (2010). Systematic reviews and evidence informed policy-making: Overview. London: DFID. See document online
- DFID. (2010). Building peaceful states and societies: A Practice Paper. London: DFID. See document online
- DFID. (2012). Supporting infrastructure development in FCAS: Case study – DR Congo. London: DFID See document online
- DFID. (2012). Results in fragile and conflict-affected states and situations (How-to note). London: DFID. See document online
- DFID. (2013). Strengthening the agriculture sector in Afghanistan (SASA): Annual Review. London: DFID. See document online
- DFID. (2014a). Economic development for shared prosperity and poverty reduction: a strategic framework. London: DFID. See document online
- DFID. (2014b). Afghanistan Investment Climate Facility (AICF): Annual review. London: DFID. See document online
- DFID. (2014c). Annual review – Summary sheet: Sustainable employment and economic development programme II (SEED II). London: DFID. See document online
- DFID. (2014d). Rural and agricultural markets development programme for Northern Nigeria (Propcom Mai-karfi): Annual review. London: DFID. See document online
- Di John, J. & Putzel, J. (2009). Political Settlements (GSDRC Issues Paper). Birmingham: GSDRC. See document online
- Dietsche, E., Dodd, S., Haglund, D., Henstridge, M,. Jakobsen, M.,Sindou, E., & Slaven., C. (2013).Extractives industries, development and the role of donors. Topic Guide. London: EPS PEAKS.
- Domingo, P., Holmes, R., Rocha Menocal, A., & Jones, N. (with Bhuvanendra, D. & Wood, J.).(2013). Assessment of the evidence of links between gender equality, peacebuilding and statebuilding: Literature review. London: ODI. See document online
- Dube, O., & Vargas, J. F. (2013). Commodity price shocks and civil conflict: Evidence from Colombia/ Review of Economic Studies, 80(4), 1384-1421. See document online
- European Commission. (2009). Overcoming fragility in Africa (European Report on Development). European Communities. See document online
- Eisendrath, A. (2007). Use of operating contracts for managing infrastructure enterprises under ‘difficult’ conditions. Washington, DC: USAID. See document online
- EITI. (2010). Impact of EITI in Africa. Stories from the ground. Oslo: EITI. See document online
- El-Bushra, J. (with Adrian-Paul, A., & Olson, M.). (2003). Women building peace: Sharing know-how. London: International Alert. See document online
- Erskine, W., & Nesbitt, H. (2009). How can agriculture research make a difference in countries emerging from conflict? Experimental Agriculture, 45(03), 313-321. See document online
- Fearon, J.,& Laitin, D. (2003). Ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war. American Political Science Review, 97(1). See document online
- Fennel, S. (2009). A literature review on the gender indicator in the Country Policy and Institutional Assessment. Washington, DC: World Bank.
- Foltz, J. D., & Opoku-Agyemang, K. A. (2011). Low-intensity conflict and schooling outcomes: Evidence from Uganda. See document online
- Ford, J. (2015). Regulating business for peace: The United Nations, the private sector, and post-conflict recovery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. See document online
- Frances, P., Lapin, D., & Rossiasco, P. (2011). Securing development and peace in the Niger Delta. A social and conflict analysis for change. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. See document online
- Friedemann-Sánchez, G. (2006) Assets in intrahousehold bargaining among women workers in Colombia’s cut-flower industry. Feminist Economics, 12(1-2), 247-269. See document online
- Gallagher, E. (2009). Outcome evaluation of the UNDP/PAPP mid-term strategic framework, 2008-2011: Final report. New York: UNDP. See document online
- Ganegodage, K. R., & Rambaldi, A. N. (2014). Economic consequences of war: Evidence from Sri Lanka. Journal of Asian Economics, 30, 42-53. See document online
- Ganesan, A., & Vines, A. (2004). Engine of war: Resources, greed and the predatory state. In Human rights and armed conflict: Human Rights Watch world report 2004. New York: Human Rights Watch. See document online
- Gates, S, Hegre, H., Nygard, H. M., & Strand, H. (2012). Development consequences of armed conflict. World Development, 40(9), 1713-1722 See document online
- Gerstle, T., & Meissner, L. (2010). Market development in conflict-affected contexts (Strengthening the economic dimensions of peacebuilding practice note 1). International Alert. See document online
- Gissinger, R., & Gleditsch, N. L. (1999). Globalization and conflict: Welfare, distribution, and political unrest. Journal of World-Systems Research, 5(2), 327-365. See document online
- Goldstein, J. S. (2001). War and gender: how gender shapes the war system and vice versa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Goldwyn, R., & Chigas, D. (2013). Monitoring and evaluating conflict sensitivity: Methodological challenges and practical solutions. London: DFID. See document online
- Goodhand, J. (2008). Corrupting or consolidating the peace? The drugs economy and post-conflict peacebuilding in Afghanistan. International Peacekeeping, 15(3), 405–23. See document online
- Goodhand, J. (2004). From war economy to peace economy? Reconstruction and state Building in Afghanistan. Journal of International Affairs, 58(1), 155-174. See document online
- Grundel, H. (2010). Natural resource governance in conflict-affected contexts (Strengthening the economic dimensions of peacebuilding practice note 6). London: International Alert. See document online
- Guglielmetti, C. (2010). Measuring the business environment for entrepreneurship in fragile states (UNU-WIDER Working Paper No. 2010/14). Helsinki: United Nations University. See document online
- Gündüz, C., Klein, D. (2008). Conflict-sensitive approaches to value chain development (microReport #101). Washington, DC: USAID. See document online
- Gutierrez, E. (2011). Political settlements (Occasional paper number 4). London: Christian Aid. See document online
- Haider, H. (2009). Long-term job creation in fragile states (Helpdesk research report). Birmingham, GSDRC. See document online
- Hammond, L., Awad, M., Ibrahim Dagane, A., Hansen, P., Horst, C., Menkhaus, K., & Obare, L. (2011). Cash and compassion. The role of the Somali diaspora in relief, development and peacebuilding. New York: UNDP See document online
- Harwell, E. (2010). Forests in fragile and conflict-affected states. Washington, DC: PROFOR. See document online
- Haver, K. (2009). Self-protection in conflict: Community strategies for keeping safe in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Oxford: Oxfam.
- Hegre, H., Gissinger, R., & Gleditsch, N. P. (2002). Globalization and internal conflict. In G. Schneider, K. Barbieri & N. P. Gleditsch (Eds.), Globalization and conflict. Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield. See document online
- Herbert, S. (2014). Sequencing reforms in fragile states: topic guide. Birmingham: GSDRC. See document online
- Herrendorf, B., Rogerson, R., & Valentinyi, A. (2014). Growth and structural transformation. In P. Aghion & S. N. Durlauf (Eds.), Handbook of economic growth (vol. 2, pp. 855-941). Amsterdam: North-Holland. See document online
- Holden, J., & Pagel, M. (2012). ‘Fragile states’ economies: What does fragility mean for economic performance? (Helpdesk request). London: EPS PEAKS. See document online
- Holmes, R., McCord, A., Hagen-Zanker, J., Bergh, G., & Zanker, F. (2013). What is the evidence on the impact of employment creation on stability and poverty reduction in fragile states: A systematic review. London: ODI. See document online
- Hudson, V. M., Ballif-Spanvill, B., Caprioli, M., & Emmett, C. F. (2008). The heart of the matter: The security of women and the security of states. International Security, 33(3), 7-45. See document online
- Hudson, V. M., Ballif-Spanvill, B., Caprioli, M., & Emmett, C. F. (2012). Sex and world peace. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Human Security Centre. (2005). Human security report 2005: War and peace in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press. See document online
- Humphreys, M., & Weinstein, J. M. (2009). Field experiments and the political economy of development. Annual Review of Political Science, 12, 367-78. See document online
- Ibáñez, A. M., & Moya, A. (2009). Do conflicts create poverty traps? Asset losses and recovery for displaced households in Colombia (MICROCON Research Working Paper 10). Brighton: IDS. See document online
- ICMM. (2014). Enhancing mining’s contribution to the Zambian economy and society. London: ICMM). See document online
- Iff, A., Sguaitamatti, D, Alluri, R. M., & Kohler, D. (2010). Money makers as peace makers? Business actors in mediation processes (Working Paper Series No. 2). Bern: SwissPeace. See document online
- ILO. (2010). Local economic recovery in post-conflict: Guidelines. Geneva: ILO. See document online
- IMF. (2001). IMF concludes article IV consultation with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (PIN No. 01/70). Washington, DC: IMF. See document online
- IMF. (2007). Guide on resource revenue transparency. Washington, DC: IMF. See document online
- IMF. (2011). Macroeconomic and operational challenges in fragile situations. Washington, DC: IMF. See document online
- Institute for Economics and Peace. (2013).Pillars of peace: Understanding the key attitudes and institutions that underpin peaceful societies. Sydney: Institute for Economics and Peace. See document online
- International Alert. (2006a). Addressing the economic dimensions of peacebuilding through trade and support to private enterprise. London: International Alert. See document online
- International Alert. (2006b). Local business, local peace: The peacebuilding potential of the domestic private sector: Executive summary. London: International Alert. See document online
- Iyenda, G. (2005). Street enterprises, urban livelihoods and poverty in Kinshasa. Environment and Urbanisation, 17(2). See document online
- Jacobsen, K. (2002). Livelihoods in conflict: The pursuit of livelihoods by refugees and the impact on the human security of host communities. International Migration, 40(5), 95–123. See document online
- Jacobsen, K., Lautze, S., & Osman, A. M. K. (2001). The Sudan: The unique challenges of displacement in Khartoum. In M. Vincent & B.R. Sorensen (Eds.), Caught between borders: Response strategies of the internally displaced. Sterling, VA: Pluto.
- Jaspars, S., Maxwell, D. (2009). Food security and livelihoods programming in conflict: A review (Humanitarian Practice Network paper 65). London: ODI. See document online
- Jaspars, S., & O’Callaghan, S. (2010). Challenging choices: Protection and livelihoods in conflict: Case studies from Darfur, Chechnya, Sri Lanka and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (HPG Report 31). London: ODI. See document online
- Jones, S., & Howarth, S. (2012). Supporting infrastructure development in fragile and conflict-affected states: Learning from experience. London: DFID. See document online
- Justino, P. (2011). Violent conflict and human capital accumulation. (MICROCON Research Working Paper 54). Brighton: MICROCON.See document online
- Jyoti, R., Rai, H., Hofman, A., & Grossmann, H. (2006). Business for peace: Nepali private sector gets involved in conflict transformation and peacebuilding (GTZ Strategy Paper). Bonn: National Business Initiative.
- Kahanec, M., & Yuksel, M. (2010). Intergenerational transfer of human capital under post-war distress: The displaced and the Roma in the Former Yugoslavia (Discussion Paper 5108). Bonn: IZA. See document online
- Kangas, A., Haider,H., & Fraser, E. (with Browne, E.). (2014). GSDRC Gender Topic Guide (Revised edition). Birmingham: GSDRC. See document online
- Keen, D. (2001).Disqualifying grievance? A response to the Collier/Hoeffler model as an explanation for civil war. Presented to CODEP Conference, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, June 18-20.
- Keen, D. (2009). Economic initiatives to tackle conflict: Bringing politics back in (Occasional Paper 9). London: Crisis States Research Centre See document online
- Khan, M. (2005). What is a ‘good investment climate’? In G. Kochendorfer-Lucius & B. Pleskovic (Eds.), Investment climate, growth, and poverty. Washington, DC: World Bank. See document online
- Killick, N., Srikantha, V., & Gündüz, C. (2005). The role of local business in peacebuilding. Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management See document online
- Kimenyi, M., Adibe, J., Djiré, M., Jirgi, A. J., Kergna, A., Deressa, T. T., … Westbury, A. (2014). The impact of conflict and political instability on agricultural investments in Mali and Nigeria (Africa Growth Initiative working paper 17). Washington, DC: Brookings See document online
- Kishor, S., & Johnson, K., (2005). Women at the nexus of poverty and violence: How unique is their disadvantage. Washington, DC: USAID. See document online
- Klare, M. T. (2001). Natural resource wars: The new landscape of global conflict. New York: Metropolitan Books. .
- Imai, K., & Weinstein, J. (2000). Measuring the economic impact of civil war (CID Working Paper No. 51). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School. See document online
- Lautze, S., & Raven Roberts, A. (2006). Violence and complex emergencies: Implications for livelihoods models. Disasters, 30(4), 383–401 See document online
- Leo, B., Ramachandran, V., & Thuotte, R. (2012). Supporting private business growth in African fragile states: A guiding framework for the World Bank Group in South Sudan and other nations. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development See document online
- Levitt, S. D., & Venkatesh, S. A. (2000). An economic analysis of a drug-selling gang’s finances. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(3), 755-789. See document online
- Lister, S., & Paine, A. (2004). Trading in power: The politics of ‘free’ market in Afghanistan (Briefing paper). Kabul: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit. See document online
- Loayza, N., & Raddatz, C. (2006). The composition of growth matters for poverty alleviation (World Bank Research Working Paper 4077). Washington, DC: World Bank. See document online
- Longley, C., Christoplos, I., Slaymaker, T., & Meseka, S. (2007). Rural recovery in fragile states: Agricultural support in countries emerging from conflict (Natural Resource Perspectives 105). London: ODI. See document online
- Lyon, F., Porter, G., Adamu, F., & Obafemi, L. (2006). Nigeria case study. In J. Banfield, C. Gündüz, & N. Killick (Eds.), Local business, local peace: The peace-building potential of the domestic private sector London: International Alert. See document online
- Mac Sweeney, N. (2008). Private sector development in post-conflict countries: A review of current literature and practice. Cambridge: DCED. See document online
- Mallett, R.,& Slater, R. (2012). Growth and livelihoods in fragile and conflict-affected situations (Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium working paper 9). London: ODI. See document online
- Massa, I., & te Velde, D. W. (2011). The role of development finance institutions in tackling global challenges (Project Briefing No. 65). London: ODI See document online
- McLeod, D., & Dávalos, M. E. (2008). Postconflict employment creation for stabilisation and poverty reduction See document online
- Mcloughlin, C. (2012). Topic Guide on Fragile States. Birmingham: GSDRC. See document online
- Mejía Acosta, A. (2013). The impact and effectiveness of accountability and transparency initiatives: The governance of natural resources. Development Policy Review, 31(s1), s89–s105. See document online
- Mejía Acosta, A. (2014). The extractive industries transparency initiative: Impact, effectiveness, and where next for expanding natural resource governance? (U4 Brief No. 6). Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute. See document online
- Melamed, C. (2013). Economic growth and transformation in a post-2015 agreement (Background paper). London: ODI. See document online
- Mercy Corps .(2011). Peacebuilding through economic development approach. Portland, OR: Mercy Corps. See document online
- Mercy Corp. (2015). Does youth employment build stability? Evidence from an impact evaluation of vocational training in Afghanistan. Portland, OR: Mercy Corps. See document online
- Mercy Corp (n. d.). Why youth fight: Making sense of youth political violence in Sub-Saharan Africa. Portland, OR: Mercy Corps See document online
- Messer, E., Cohen, M. J. & D’Costa, J. (1998). Food from peace: Breaking the links between conflict and hunger (Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper 24). Washington, DC: IFPRI.
- MIGA. (2004). An evaluation of MIGA investment climate activities. Washington, DC: World Bank.
- Miguel, E., Satyanath, S., & Sergenti, E. (2004). Economic shocks and civil conflict: An instrumental variables approach. Journal of Political Economy, 112 (4), 725-753. See document online
- Mills, R., & Fan, Q. (2006). The investment climate in post-conflict situations (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4055). Washington, DC: World Bank. See document online
- Moore, M., & Schmitz, H. (2008). Idealism, realism and the investment climate in developing countries (IDS research summary 307). Brighton: IDS. See document online
- Murshed, S. M., & Tadjoeddin, M. Z. (2009). Revisiting the greed and grievance explanations for violent internal conflict. Journal of International Development, 21(1), 87-111. See document online
- Nathan, L. (2005). ‘The frightful inadequacy of most of the statistics’: A critique of collier and hoeffler on causes of civil war (Crisis States Research Centre Discussion Papers, 11). London: LSE. See document online
- Nelson, J. (2000). The business of peace. The private sector as a partner in conflict prevention and resolution. London: International Alert. See document online
- Nenova, T., & Harford, T. (2004). Anarchy and invention. How does Somalia’s private sector cope without government? (Public Policy for the Private Sector, Note number 280). Washington, DC: World Bank. See document online
- O’Callaghan, S., Jaspars, S., & Pavanello, S. (2009) Losing ground: Protection and livelihoods in the occupied Palestinian territories (HPG Working Paper). London: ODI. See document online
- Ockenden, A. (2011). Opposing the motion ‘The M4P approach has limited utility in post-conflict environments’ (M4P Hub Debate Discussion Paper). Reading: M4P Hub. See document online
- OECD. (2009). Ensuring fragile states are not left behind (Summary Report). Paris: OECD. See document online
- OECD-DAC. (2008). State-building in situations of fragility: Initial findings. Paris: OECD. See document online
- OECD-DAC. (2010). International support to statebuilding in situations of fragility and conflict. See document online
- Ostby, G. (2008). Inequalities, the political environment and civil conflict: Evidence from 55 developing countries. In F. Stewart (Ed.), Horizontal inequalities and conflict: Understanding group violence in multiethnic societies (pp. 136-159). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Pantuliano, S., & Elhawary, S. (2009). Uncharted territory: Land, conflict and humanitarian action (HPG Policy Brief 39). London: ODI. See document online
- Pantuliano, S., Buchanan-Smith, M., Metcalfe, V., Pavanello, S., & Martin, E. (2011). City limits: Urbanisation and vulnerability in Sudan (HPG Synthesis Report). London: ODI. See document online
- Parker, J. (2008). A synthesis of practical lessons from value chain projects in conflict-affected environments (microReport #105). Washington, DC: USAID. See document online
- Pellillo, A. (2012). Conflict and development: Evidence from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. See document online
- Peschka, M. P. (2011). The role of the private sector in fragile and conflict-affected states (World Development Report background paper). Washington, DC: World Bank. See document online
- Petesch, P. (2011). Women’s empowerment arising from violent conflict and recovery. Washington, DC: USAID See document online
- Petesch, P. (2012). The clash of violent conflict, good jobs, and gender norms in four economies (World Development Report background paper). Washington, DC: World Bank. See document online
- Polachek, S., & Sevastianova, D. (2010). Does conflict disrupt growth? Evidence of the relationship between political instability and national economic performance (IZA Discussion Paper No. 4762). Bonn: IZA. See document online
- Polachek, S., Seigle, C., & Xiang, J. (2012). Globalization and international conflict: Can FdI increase peace? In M. R. Garfinkel & S. Skaperdas (Eds.), Oxford handbook of the economics of peace and conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press. See document online
- Pugh, M. (2008). Employment, labour rights and social resistance. In M. Pugh, N. Copper, & M. Turner (Eds.), Whose peace? Critical perspectives on the political economy of peace-building (pp. 139-56). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillam.
- Raeymaekers, T. (2006). Conflict and food security in Beni-Lubero. Rome: FAO. See document online
- Raeymaekers, T. (2011). Forced displacement and youth employment in the aftermath of the Congo war: From making a living to making a life (MICROCON Research Working Paper 38). Brighton: IDS. See document online
- Raniere, R., & Ramos, R. (2013). Inclusive growth: Building up a concept (Working Paper number 104). Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth. See document online
- Rao, S. (2010). Investment climate in fragile and conflict affected states (Helpdesk Report). Birmingham: GSDRC. See document online
- Rockmore, M. (2011). The cost of fear: The welfare effects of the risk of violence in Northern Uganda (HiCN Working Paper 109). Brighton: IDS. See document online
- Ross, M. L. (2003). Oil, drugs, and diamonds: The varying roles of natural resources in civil war. In K. Ballentine & J. Sherman (Eds.), The political economy of armed conflict: Beyond greed and grievance (pp. 47-70). Boulder: Lynne Rienner. See document online
- Salazar-Xirinachs, J. M., Nubler, I., & Kozul-Wright, R. (2014). Industrial policy, productive transformation and jobs: Theory, history and practice. In J. M. Salazar-Xirinachs, I. Nubler, & R. Kozul-Wright, Transforming Economies: Making industrial policy work for growth, jobs and development (pp. 1-40). Geneva: ILO. See document online
- Saperstein, A., & Campbell, R. (2008). Accelerating the transition from conflict to sustainable growth: Value chain development in conflict-affected environments (microREPORT #101). Washington DC: USAID. See document online
- Seddon, D., & Hussein, K. (2002). The consequences of conflict: Livelihoods and development in Nepal (Livelihoods and Chronic Conflict Working Paper 185). London: ODI. See document online
- SEEP Network. (2007). Market development in crisis-affected environments: Emerging lessons for achieving pro-poor economic reconstruction. Washington, DC: SEEP Network. See document online
- Shemyakina, O. (2006). The effect of armed conflict on accumulation of schooling: Results from Tajikistan (HiCN Working Paper 12). Brighton: IDS. See document online
- Sinha, S., Holmberg, J. & Thomas, M. (2013). What works for market development: a review of the evidence. UTV Working Paper 1. See document online
- Slim, H. (2012). Business actors in armed conflict: Towards a new Humanitarian agenda. International Review of the Red Cross, 94(887). See document online
- Sperling, L., & McGuire, S. (2010) .‘Persistent myths about emergency seed aid. Food Policy, 35, 195-201. See document online
- Stewart, F. (2002). Horizontal inequalities: A neglected dimension of development (QEH Working Paper Number 81). Oxford: Queen Elizabeth House. See document online
- Stewart, F. (2010). Horizontal inequalities as a cause of conflict: A review of CRISE findings (World Development Report 2011 Background Paper). Washington, DC: World Bank. See document online
- Suhrke, A., & Buckmaster, J. (2006). Aid, growth and peace: a comparative analysis. Conflict, Security & Development, 6(3), 337-363. See document online
- Tyler, A. (2008). Protection and livelihoods in Somalia. Humanitarian Exchange Magazine, 40.. See document online
- UNDG. (2013). Natural resource management in transition settings (UNDG-ECHA Guidance Note). New York: UN. See document online
- UNDP. (2008). Crisis prevention and recovery report 2008: Post-conflict economic recovery, enabling local ingenuity. New York: UNDP. See document online
- United Nations. (2007). What is peacebuilding? In( Application guidelines. New York: UN. See document online
- United Nations. (2009a). United Nations policy for post-conflict employment generation, income generation and reintegration. New York: UN. See document online
- United Nations. (2009b). Post-conflict employment creation, income generation and reintegration: Operational guidance note. New York: UN. See document online
- United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2004). Expert group meeting on conflict prevention, peacebuilding and development: Issues paper for the session on natural resource governance and conflict prevention. New York: UN. See document online
- United Nations Environment Programme. (2009). From conflict to peacebuilding – The role of natural resources and the environment. New York: UNEP. See document online
- United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office, & United Nations Development Programme. (2013). Women and natural resources unlocking the peacebuilding potential. New York:UN See document online
- United Nations Interagency Framework Team for Preventative Action. (2012). Strengthening capacity for conflict-sensitive natural resource management (Toolkit and Guidance for Preventing and Managing Land and Natural Resources Conflict). New York: UN. See document online
- UNODC. (2009). Afghanistan opium survey 2009: Summary findings. New York: UN. See document online
- USAID. (2009). A guide to economic growth in post-conflict countries. Washington, DC: USAID. See document online
- USAID. (2010). A rough guide to investment climate reform in conflict-affected countries. Washington, DC: USAID. See document online
- USAID, & DFID. (2014). Bangladesh: Inclusive growth diagnostic. Washington, DC and London: USAID and DFID. See document online
- USIP. (2008). Conflict-sensitive approach to infrastructure development. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace. See document online
- Von Luebke, C., McCulloch, N., Patunru, A., & Wardhani, S. B. (2009). Heterodox reform symbioses: The political economy of investment climate reforms in Solo, Indonesia. Asian Economic Journal, 23(3), 269-296. See document online
- Walton, O. (2010a). Improving the investment climate in FCAS (Helpdesk research report). Birmingham: GSDRC. See document online
- Walton, O. (2010b). Evidence for the supporting investment climate in FCAS (Helpdesk research report). Birmingham: GSDRC. See document online
- Walton, O. (2010c). Youth, armed violence and job creation programmes: A rapid mapping study. Birmingham: GSDRC See document online
- Whaites, A. (2008). States in development: Understanding state-building (DFID Working Paper). London: DFID. See document online
- Krug, E. G., Dahlberg, L. L., Mercy, J. A., Zwi, A. B., & Lozano, R. (2002). World report on violence and health. Geneva: WHO. See document online
- Women’s Refugee Commission. (2008). Youth and sustainable livelihoods: Linking vocational training programmes to market opportunities in Northern Uganda. New York: Women’s Refugee Commission. See document online
- World Bank. (2007). Global monitoring report: Millennium development goals: Confronting the challenges of gender equality and fragile states. Washington, DC: World Bank. See document online
- World Bank. (2009). What is inclusive growth? Washington, DC: World Bank See document online
- World Bank. (2011). World development report: Conflict, security, and development. Washington, DC: World Bank. See document online
- World Bank. (2014). Public-private dialogue in fragile and conflict-affected situations: Experiences and lessons learned. Washington, DC: World Bank. See document online
- Wright, H., & Tielemans, S. (2014). Gender, violence and peace. A post-2015 development agenda. Saferworld & Conciliation Resources See document online
- Yusuf, A. W. (2006). Somali enterprises: Making peace their business. In International Alert local business, local peace: The peace-building potential of the domestic private sector. London: International Alert. See document online